- The Constitution does not contain any classification of Directive Principles.
- However, on the basis of their content and direction, they can be classified into three broad categories, viz, socialistic, Gandhian and liberal–intellectual.
- These principles reflect the ideology of socialism.
- They lay down the framework of a democratic socialist state, aim at providing social and economic justice, and set the path towards welfare state.
- They direct the state:
1.. To promote the welfare of the people by securing a social order permeated by justice—social, economic and political—and to minimise inequalities in income, status, facilities and opportunities(Article 38).
2.. To secure
(a) the right to adequate means of livelihood for all citizens;
(b) the equitable distribution of material resources of the community for the common good;
(c) prevention of concentration of wealth and means of production;
(d) equal pay for equal work for men and women;
(e) preservation of the health and strength of workers and children against forcible abuse; and
(f) opportunities for healthy development of children(Article 39).
3..To promote equal justice and to provide free legal aid to the poor(Article 39 A).
4.. To secure the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement (Article 41).
5.. To make provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief (Article 42).
6.. To secure a living wage, a decent standard of life and social and cultural opportunities for all workers (Article 43).
7.. To take steps to secure the participation of workers in the management of industries(Article 43 A).
8.. To raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of people and to improve public health (Article 47).
These principles are based on Gandhian ideology. They represent the programme of reconstruction enunciated by Gandhi during the national movement. In order to fulfil the dreams of Gandhi, some of his ideas were included as Directive Principles. They require the State:
- To organise village panchayats and endow them with necessary powers and authority to enable them to function as units of self-government (Article 40).
- To promote cottage industries on an individual or co-operation basis in rural areas (Article 43).
- To promote voluntary formation, autonomous functioning, democratic control and professional management of co-operative societies(Article 43B).
- To promote the educational and economic interests of SCs, STs, and other weaker sections of the society and to protect them from social injustice and exploitation (Article 46).
- To prohibit the consumption of intoxicating drinks and drugs which are injurious to health (Article 47).
- To prohibit the slaughter of cows, calves and other milch and draught cattle and to improve their breeds (Article 48).
The principles included in this category represent the ideology of liberalism. They direct the state:
- To secure for all citizens a uniform civil code throughout the country (Article 44).
- To provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years(Article 45).
- To organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines (Article 48).
- To protect and improve the environment and to safeguard forests and wild life(Article 48 A).
- To protect monuments, places and objects of artistic or historic interest which are declared to be of national importance (Article 49).
- To separate the judiciary from the executive in the public services of the State (Article 50).
- To promote international peace and security and maintain just and honourable relations between nations; to foster respect for international law and treaty obligations, and to encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration (Article 51).
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