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#1 Which among the following conditions will increase the rate of decomposition? 1. Low temperature 2. High moisture content 3. High nitrogen content in detritus. Select the correct answer using the code given below.?Ans-c
Factors affecting decomposition of organic matter are:
- Temperature: Cold periods retard plant growth and decomposition. Warm summers may permit plant growth and humus accumulation.
- Soil moisture: Adequate soil moisture i.e. about 60 to 80 percent of the water-holding capacity of the soil is must for the proper decomposition of organic matter.
- Nutrients: Lack of nutrients particularly Nitrogen slows decomposition.
- Soil pH: Most of the microbes grow best at pH 6 – 8, but are severely inhibited below pH 4.5 and above pH 8.5.
- Soil Texture: Soils higher in clays tend to retain larger amounts of humus.
#2 Which of the following is/are the micronutrients required for plants? 1. Magnesium 2. Boron 3. Sulphur 4. Manganese. Select the correct answer using the code given below.?Ans-c
- There are 7 essential plant nutrient elements defined as micronutrients: boron (B), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo) and chlorine (Cl).
- They constitute in total less than 1% of the dry weight of most plants.
- Magnesium and Sulphur are examples of macronutrients.
- All the inorganic substances are divided into two types:
Macronutrients (needed in large quantities) : Examples are carbon, hydrogen, Sulphur, calcium sodium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus and oxygen
Micronutrients (needed in small quantities): Examples are Copper, Manganese, Selenium, Zinc, Molybdenum, Boron and Silicon
#3 Which of the following international protocols/conferences are related to ozone layer protection? 1. Vienna Conference 2. Kyoto Protocol 3. Montreal Protocol 4. Helsinki Conference. Select the correct answer using the code given below.?Ans-b
The Vienna Conference was the first international conference on ozone layer depletion. It was held in Vienna, Austria in 1985 when a hole in the stratospheric ozone layer was observed in the South Pole.
Through the Montreal Protocol convention in 1987 developed countries decided to reduce chlorofluorocarbons production, which is an ozone depleting material, production step by step. Some relaxations were provided to developing countries.
The Helsinki Conference of 1989 was held to revise the Montreal Protocol. There it was agreed to have a total ban by 2000 on chemicals that cause ozone depletion.
The Kyoto Protocol of 1997 is an international treaty with main focus on gas emissions to curb global warming.
#4 Which of the following statements is/are correct regarding bioremediation? 1. These are biological measures to convert environment pollutants into harmless forms. 2. Vermi composting is an example of bioremediation. Select the correct answer using code given below. ?Ans-c
- Bioremediation refers to the process of using microorganisms to degrade waste matter.
- There are two methods of degrading waste matter i.e., In-situ and Ex-situ bioremediation.
- Where, In-situ means conversion of environmental pollutants into harmless forms by introducing micro-organisms.
- And Ex-situ involves removal of waste materials from their place origin and their collection at another place to facilitate microbial degradation.
- Vermi composting is the phenomenon of compost formation of waste by earthworms.