Environment -05

 

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#1 Which among the following are adaptations by desert vegetation to survive in their habitat? 1. Short and aerial roots 
 2. Small and waxy leaves 
 3. Opening of leaf pores only at night. 
 Select the correct answer using the code given below.?Ans- b

  • Desert plants develop ways to capture water to survive their habitat.
  • These changes are called as adaptation.
  • A common adaptation is to store water in roots, stems, leaves or fruit.
  • Plants that store water in such a way are called succulents.
  • Plants develop long roots that go deep into the ground to reach underground water.
  • They develop spreading root system stretching widely so that tiny roots and capture water when it rains
  • Desert plants limit water loss through their leaf surface.
  • Small and spiny leaves limit surface area exposed to sun.
  • Glossy leaves reflect the sun‘s rays reducing the evaporation rate.
  • Some plants open their pores only at night when it is cool and thus water loss is low.

#2 With reference to environment and ecology, the term ‘leachate’ refers to:?Ans-c

#3 Which among the following are primary air pollutants? 
 1. Smoke 2. Ozone 3. Peroxyacylnitrate (PAN). 
 Select the correct answer using the code given below.?Ans-a

Primary pollutants: The pollutants that are emitted directly from the source and are found in the atmosphere in the form in which they were emitted are known as primary pollutants such as ash, smoke, dust, radioactive compounds etc.

Secondary pollutants: The pollutants that are formed in the atmosphere by chemical interactions between primary pollutants and atmospheric constituents are known as secondary pollutants such as sulphur trioxide, ozone, peroxyxacylnitrae, ketones etc.

#4 Which among the following are heterotrophs? 
 1. Consumers 2. Producers 3. Decomposers
. Select the correct answer using the code given below.?Ans-B

Autotrophs are organisms that can produce their own food from the substances available in their surroundings using light (photosynthesis) or chemical energy (chemosynthesis). The green autotrophic plants are regarded as producers.

Heterotrophs cannot synthesize their own food and rely on other organisms — both plants and animals — for nutrition. Heterotrophs are of two types – Consumers and Decomposers.

#5 Indistinct geographic populations, the limbs, ears, and other appendages of the animals living in cold climates tend to be shorter than in animals of the same species living in warm climates.’
 Which ecological principle is defined in the above passage?
?Ans-b

Allen’s rule: The principle holding that in a warm-blooded animal species having distinct geographic populations, the limbs, ears, and other appendages of the animals living in cold climates tend to be shorter than in animals of the same species living in warm climates.

Bergmann’s rule is an ecogeographical rule that states that within a broadly distributed taxonomic clade, populations and species of larger size are found in colder environments, and species of smaller size are found in warmer regions.

Gloger’s rule is an ecogeographical rule which states that within a species of endotherms, more heavily pigmented forms tend to be found in more humid environments, e.g. near the equator.

Rensch’s rule is a biological rule on allometrics, concerning the relationship between the extent of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) and which sex is larger.

 

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