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Ganga River System

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The Ganga is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh. The 2,525 km (1,569 mi) river rises in the western Himalayas in Uttarakhand, and flows south and east through the Gangetic Plain of North India into Bangladesh, where it empties into the Bay of Bengal.

It is the third largest river in the world by discharge.

Course of Ganga:
The main stem of the Ganges begins at the confluence of the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda rivers in the town of Devprayag in the Garhwal division of the Indian state of Uttarakhand.

Although many small streams comprise the headwaters of the Ganges, the six longest and their five confluences are considered sacred. The six headstreams are the Alaknanda, Dhauliganga, Nandakini, Pindar, Mandakini, and Bhagirathi rivers.

The five confluences, known as the Panch Prayag, are all along the Alaknanda. They are, in downstream order,

  Vishnuprayag, where the Dhauliganga joins the Alaknanda;

  Nandprayag, where the Nandakini joins;

  Karnaprayag, where the Pindar joins,

  Rudraprayag, where the Mandakini joins;

  Devprayag, where the Bhagirathi joins the Alaknanda to form the Ganges River proper.

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  • After travelling 280 km from its source, the Ganga reaches Haridwar, debouches from the hills and enters plain area.
  • From here it flows in south and south-east direction for a distance of 770 km to reach Allahabad.
  • Here it is joined by the Yamuna which is its most important tributary.
  • It sweeps another 300 km eastwards to reach the Bihar plain.
  • Near Rajmahal Hills it turns to the southeast and south of Farraka, it ceases to be known as the Ganga.
  • It bifurcates itself into Bhagirathi-Hugli in West Bengal and Padma-Meghna in Bangladesh.
  • After traversing 220 km further down in Bangladesh, the Brahmaputra (or the Jamuna as it is known here) joins it at Goalundo and after meeting Meghna 100 km downstream the Ganga joins the Bay of Bengal.
  • Before entering the Bay of Bengal, the Ganga, along with Brahmputra, forms the largest delta of the world between two arms: the Bhagirathi / Hugli and the Padma / Meghna covering an area of 58,752 sq km.

This basin is shared by ten states.

These states are Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh (34.2%), Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh (23.1%), Bihar and Jharkhand (16.7%), Rajasthan (13.0%), West Bengal (8.3%), Haryana (4.0%) and Himachal Pradesh (0.5%). The Union Territory of Delhi accounts for 0.2% of the total area of the Ganga Basin.

Image result for table gives the details of important tributaries of Ganga

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