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#1 Arrange the following tributaries of Yamuna from west to east 1. Sindh 2. Ken 3. Chambal 4. Betwa. Select the correct answer using code below?Solution (b)
#2 ‘Duar formations’ can be found in 1. West Bengal 2. Sikkim 3. Uttarakhand. Select the correct answer using code below?Solution (a)
‘Duar formations’ are found in Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas. These are alluvial floodplains that are now used for production of tea.
Sankosh River divides the duars into Bengal Duar (Western) and Assam Duar (Eastern).
> The Dooars or Duars are the alluvial floodplains in northeastern India that lie south of the outer foothills of the Himalayas and north of the Brahmaputra River basin.
#3 Consider the following statements with reference to temperature of ocean water 1. The annual range of temperature is very small. 2. There is a constant reduction in temperature with latitude. 3. Enclosed seas of tropics have lower temperature than the open ocean. Which of the statements given above is/are correct??Solution (a)
- Like land masses, ocean water varies in temperature from place to place both at the surface and at great depths.
- Since water warms up and cools down much more slowly than the land, the annual range of temperature in any part of the ocean is very much smaller .
- It is less than 10°F. for most of the open seas.
- Generally, the mean annual temperature of the surface ocean water decreases front about 70°F.
- in equatorial areas to 55°F. at latitudes 45°N. and S., and drops almost to freezing-point at the poles.
- The reduction of temperature with latitude is however never constant , because of the interference by warm and cold currents, winds and air masses.
- Unlike the solid earth, ocean water is mobile and variations in the temperature between different pans of the oceans can be expected. Water flowing out from the Arctic and Antarctic as cold currents, such as the Labrador Current off north-east Canada, tends to reduce the surface- water temperature. Ports of eastern Canada even at 45°N. are thus icebound for almost half the year. In the same way, coasts warmed by warm currents, such as the North Atlantic Drift, have their surface temperature raised. The Norwegian coast, even at latitudes 60° to 70°N. is ice- free throughout the year!
- The highest water temperatures are found in enclosed seas in the tropics , e.g. the Red Sea which records a temperature of 85° to 100°F.
- Ocean temperatures (Sea surface temperatures) have a large influence on climate and weather phenomenon like El Nino, development of tropical cyclones and monsoon. These are thus an essential parameter in weather prediction and atmospheric model simulations.
#4 Which of the following are the reasons for excessive cold in north India during winter season? 1. Snowfall in Himalayan Ranges 2. Lack of moderating influence of sea 3. Cold winds from Caspian Sea 4. Formation of Tropical Easterly Jetstream. Select the correct answer using code below?Solution (b)
There are three main reasons for the excessive cold in north India during winter season:
i. States like Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan being far away from the moderating influence of sea experience continental climate.
ii. The snowfall in the nearby Himalayan ranges creates cold wave situation.
iii. Around February, the cold winds coming from the Caspian Sea and Turkmenistan bring cold wave along with frost and fog over the northwestern parts of India.
- Tropical Easterly Jetstream is a feature of summers and is associated with onset of monsoons on Indian subcontinent.
#5 Consider the following statements 1. River Ganga passes through five states in India. 2. River Narmada passes through two states in India. 3. River Vaigai flows only through Tamil Nadu. Which of the statements given above are correct??Solution (b)
River Ganga passes through Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal.
River Narmada passes through Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat.
River Vaigai flows entirely in Tamil Nadu.