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#1 With reference to Indian freedom struggle, Khudai Khidmatgars was –?Ans- d
- Gaffar Khan, also called Badshah Khan and Frontier Gandhi, had started the first Pushto political monthly Pukhtoon and had organised a volunteer brigade ‘Khudai Khidmatgars’, popularly known as the ‘Red-Shirts’, who were pledged to the freedom struggle and non-violence.
- They played an extremely active role in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
- The atmosphere created by their political work contributed to the mass upsurge in Peshawar during which the city was virtually in the hands of the crowd for more than a week.
#2 Consider the following statements regarding the princely states: 1…. The burden of land tax was generally lower than the British Indian provinces. 2….People enjoyed more civil liberties than in the British Indian provinces. 3….. The rulers had limited powers to use state revenues for personal use. Which of the statements given above is/are correct??Ans-a
- The British guaranteed the Princes against any threat to their autocratic power, internal or external.
- Most of the princely States were run as unmitigated autocracies, with absolute power concentrated in the hands of the ruler or his favorites.
- The burden of the land tax was usually heavier than in British India and there was usually much less of the rule of law and civil liberties.
- The rulers had unrestrained power over the state revenues for personal use, and this often led to ostentatious living and waste.
- Some of the more enlightened rulers and their ministers did make attempts, from time to time, to introduce reforms in the administration, the system of taxation and even granted powers to the people to participate in government.
- But the vast majority of the States were bastions of economic, social, political and educational backwardness, for reasons not totally of their own making.
#3 With reference to the Swadeshi Movement, consider the following statements: 1… Emphasis was placed on Atma-shakti or Self-reliance. 2… National Council of Education was set up. 3… Emphasis on setting up of indigenous industries. Which of the statements given above is/are correct??Ans-d
- An important aspect of the swadeshi Movement was the emphasis placed on self-reliance or̳ Atmasakti‘, which means assertion of national dignity, honour and self- confidence.
- In economic field, fostering of indigenous industries was emphasised.
- Nationalists opened National Education institutions who regarded the existing education system as inadequate.
- To this effect, National Council of Education was setup in 1906.
- Also active participation of women and many prominent muslims such as Abdul Rasul, Liaquat Hussain, Guznavi etc. was seen.
#4 Consider the following statements regarding Cripps Mission: 1… It was sent to seek active cooperation of Indians in World War II. 2….It promised India both Dominion status and constitution-making body after the war. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? ?Ans-c
- As the World War II situation worsened, President Roosevelt of the USA and President Chiang Kai-Shek of China as also the Labour Party leaders of Britain put pressure on Churchill to seek the active cooperation of Indians in the War.
- To secure this cooperation the British Government sent to India in March 1942 a mission headed by a Cabinet minister Stafford Cripps, a leftwing Labourite who had earlier actively supported the Indian national movement.
- Even though Cripps announced that the aim of British policy in India was ̳the earliest possible realization of self- government in India,‘ the Draft Declaration he brought with him was disappointing.
- The Declaration promised India Dominion Status and a constitution-making body, after the war, whose members would be elected by the provincial assemblies and nominated by the rulers in case of the princely states
#5 With reference to judicial organization during British rule in the 18th century, consider the following statements: 1…. Any official could be brought before a court of law for acts done in excess of official authority. 2… Punishments were in accordance with the prevalent social system. 3….. The Europeans and their descendants had separate courts and laws. Which of the statements given above are correct??Ans- b
- The British introduced the modern concept of the rule of law.
- This meant that their administration was to be carried out, at least in theory, in obedience to laws, which clearly defined the rights, privileges, and obligations of the subjects and not according to the caprice or personal discretion of the ruler.
- One important feature of the concept of the rule of law was that any official could be brought before a court of law for breaches of official duty or for acts done in excess of his official authority.
- The rule of law was to some extent, a guarantee of the personal liberty of a person.
- The Indian legal system under the British was based on the concept of equality before law.
- This meant that in the eyes of law all men were equal.
- The same law applied to all persons irrespective of their caste, religion, or class.
- Previously, the judicial system had paid heed to caste distinctions and had differentiated between the high-born and low-born.
- For the same crime lighter punishment was awarded to a Brahmin than to a non-Brahmin.
- There was one exception to this principle of equality before law.
- The Europeans and their descendants had separate courts and even laws.
- In criminal cases they could be tried only by European judges
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