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#1 Which among the following changes were brought in the army after the revolt of 1857? 1. The proportion of Europeans to Indians in the army was decreased. 2. Communal, tribal and regional loyalties were encouraged amongst the soldiers. 3. Indians were excluded from the officer corps. Select the correct answer using the code given below.?Ans- C
- The Indian army was carefully reorganised after 1858.
- Some changes were made necessary by the transfer of power to the Crown.
- Firstly, the domination of the army by its European branch was carefully guaranteed.
- The proportion of Europeans to Indians in the army was raised.
- Moreover, the European troops were kept in key geographical and military positions.
- The organisation of the Indian section of the army was based on the policy of divide and rule so as to prevent its chance of uniting again in an anti-British uprising.
- Communal, caste, tribal and regional loyalities were encouraged amongst the soldiers so that the sentiment of nationalism would not grow among them.
- For example caste and communal companies were introduced in most of the regiments.
- The older policy of excluding Indians from the officer corps was strictly maintained.
- Till 1914, no Indian could rise higher than the rank of a subedar.
#2 In 1873, an agrarian league was formed at Pabna district of Bengal to –?Solution (b)
Agrarian league was formed at Pabna district of Bengal
- In May 1873, an agrarian league or combination was formed in Yusufshahi Parganah in Pabna district of Bengal to resist the demands of the zamindars of enhanced rents.
- The league organized mass meetings of peasants.and large crowds gathered and then they marched towards the villages frightening the zamindars.
- The league organized a rent-strike- the ryots refused to pay the enhanced rents – and challenged the zamindars in the courts.
- The struggle gradually spread throughout Pabna and then to the other districts of East Bengal.
- Everywhere agrarian leagues were organized, rents were withheld and zamindars fought in the courts.
- The main form of struggle was that of legal resistance.
- There was very little violence – it only occurred when the zamindars tried to compel the ryots to submit to their terms by force.
- In the course of the movement, the ryots developed a strong awareness of the law and their legal rights and the ability to combine and form associations for peaceful agitation.
#3 With reference to Indian modern history, consider the following events: 1. Dandi March 2. Second Round Table Conference 3. Gandhi-Irwin Pact 4. Boycott of Simon Commission. Arrange the above events in their correct chronological order: ?Ans- A
- The Congress had resolved on the boycott of Simon Commission at its annual session in December 1927 at Madras.
- The Civil Disobedience Movement was started by Gandhi ji in March 1930 with his famous Dandi March and in 6th April he broke the Salt law.
- Gandhi-Irwin Pact (in March 1931) was signed between Mahatma Gandhi and the then Viceroy of India Lord Irwin by which he agreed to take part in the Second Round Table Conference (Sept. – Dec 1931).
#4 Consider the following statements regarding Bardoli Satyagraha: 1. It was against the withdrawal of plague bonus by the mill owners of the region. 2. During this satyagraha, Vallabhbhai Patel was given the title of ‘Sardar’. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? ?Ans-b
- In January 1926, Jayakar, the officer charged with the duty of reassessment of the land revenue, recommended a thirty percent increase over the existing assessment.
- This led to the resentment among the local peasants, leading to Bardoli Satyagraha.
- The issue of withdrawal of plague bonus was taken up during Ahemdabad mill strike
- Vallabhbhai Patel‘s capacities as an organizer, speaker, campaigner was so inspiring that the women of Bardoli gave him the title of Sardar.
#5 With reference to Indian freedom struggle, Shanti Ghosh and Suniti Chowdhry are well-known for –?Ans- c
Shanti Ghosh and Suniti Chowdhry
- A revolutionary phase in Bengal saw large scale participation of young women under Surya Sen’s leadership, they provided shelters, acted as messengers and custodians of arms and fought guns in hand.
- Preetilata Waddekar died while conducting a raid, while Kalpana Dutt was arrested and tried along with Surya Sen and given a life sentence.
- In December 1931, two school girls Commilla, Shanti Ghosh and Suniti Chaudhary, shot dead the district magistrates.
- In December 1932, Beena Das fired point blank at the Governor while receiving her degree at the convocation.
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