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#1 With reference to the modern Indian history, who among the following nationalists were the moderates? 1. Aurobindo Ghose 2. Pherozeshah Mehta 3. Gopal Krishna Gokhale 4. Lala Lajpat Rai. Select the correct answer using the code given below. ?Ans- b
- The leading figures during the first phase of the National Movement (1885-1905) were moderates.
- Leading moderates were A.O. Hume, W.C. Banerjee, Surendra Nath Banerjee, Pherozeshah Mehta, Gopalakrishna Gokhale, Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, Badruddin Tyabji, Justice Ranade, G.Subramanya Aiyar.
- †The closing decade of the nineteenth century and early years of the twentieth century witnessed the emergence of a new and younger group within the Indian National Congress, which was sharply critical of the ideology and the methods of the old leadership.
- These extremists were Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghose.
#2 Which of the following were the important contribution of early nationalists in Indian National Movement? 1. To provide leadership to the movement in the early stage. 2. To encourage the masses to participate in the National Movement. 3. To provide economic criticism of colonial government. 4. To create public interest in political questions and organization of public opinion. Select the correct given below. ?Ans- d
The important contributions of early nationalists in Indian National Movement were:
- To provide leadership to the movement in the early stage.
- To provide economic criticism of colonial government.
- To create public interest in political questions and organization of public opinion.
The early nationalists did not believe in the capacity of masses and considered them as uneducated. It was the major weakness of early nationalists most of whom were elite educated Indians.
#3 Consider the following statements about the history of Civil services in India: 1…Lord Wellesley introduced and organised Civil Services in India. 2… Lord Lytton allowed Indians to take up some covenanted posts in the Civil Services. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? ?Solution (b)
- Lord Cornwallis is considered as the „Father of Indian Civil Services‟.
- He was the first to bring into existence and organise the civil services.
- In 1800, Wellesley setup the Fort William College for training of new recruits. Trick- Well William.
- In 1806, college was disapproved by the Court of Directors and instead the East India College was set up at Haileybury in England to impart two years‟ training to the recruit.
- Lord Lytton reduced the age limit to 19 (1878), but on other hand he introduced Statutory Civil Service consisting of one sixth of covenanted posts to be filled by Indians of high families through nominations by local governments subject to approval by the secretary and the viceroy, but the system failed and was abolished.
#4 During the first half of 19th century Indians were completely excluded from Civil services because: 1. Britishers believed that British administration could be firmly established only by the English personnel. 2. There was a high competition among the Europeans for the lucrative posts. Select the correct answer using the code given below. ?Ans- c
A special feature of the Indian Civil Service since the days of Cornwallis was the rigid and complete exclusion of Indians from it. They followed such a policy because:
- They believed that British administation based on British ideas, institutions and practices and it could be firmly established only by the English personnel.
- These services were required at that time to establish and consolidate British rule in India.
- Britishers did not trust the ability and integrity of the Indians.
- There was already a high competition among the European themselves for the lucrative posts, which further discouraged Indian involvement.
#5 Which of the following associations preceded the formation of Indian National Congress? 1… Zamindari Association 2…..British Indian Association 3…..All India Muslim League. Select the correct answer using the code given below.?Answer- a
The new political thrust in the years between 1875 and 1885 was the creation of the younger, more radical nationalist intellectuals most of whom entered politics during this period. They established new associations for their programmes and political activities as well as social bases.
- 1836- Bangabhasha Prakasika Sabha.
- 1838 – Zamindari Association or Landholders’ Society in Calcutta. The promotion of landholders’ interests through petitions to government and discreet persuasion of the bureaucracy was its professed object.
- 1843-Bengal British India Society
- In 1873-74, the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha, led by Justice Ranade, organized a successful campaign among the peasants, as well as at Poona and Bombay against the land revenue settlement of 1867.
- †The British Indian Association of Bengal was established in 1851.
- The younger nationalists of Bengal, led by Surendranath Banerjea and Anand Mohan Bose, founded The Indian Association in 1876.
- †Younger men of Madras – M. Viraraghavachariar, G. Subramaniya Iyer, P. Ananda Charlu and others – formed the Madras Mahajan Sabha in 1884.
- In Bombay, the more militant intellectuals like K.T. Telang and Pherozeshah Mehta broke away from older leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji and Dinshaw Petit on political grounds and formed the Bombay Presidency Association in 1885.
- †1883-India National Conference– Surendranath Banerjee
- All India Muslim League was formed in 1906 at Dacca.
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