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#1 With reference to the British Indian Association, consider the following statements: 1…. It was exclusively Indian in its membership. 2…. It represented primarily the local landlord interests. 3…. It was mainly active in Bombay and western India. Which of the statements given above is/are correct??Ans- a
- The British Indian Association was the first major voluntary organisation in India founded in 1851 in Calcutta, representing primarily the local landlord interests.
- It was created after amalgamating the “Landholders Society” and “British India Society”.
- Unlike its predecessor the Landholders’ Society that had many non-official Anglo-Indians among its members, the British Indian Association was exclusively Indian in its membership.
- It began to play a prominent role after the Indian Councils Act of 1861, which provided for limited Indian representation in the legislative councils.
- The President of the first committee of this organization was Raja Radhakanta Deb, while Debendranath Tagore was its secretary.
#2 With reference to the early nationalist response towards the British economic policies, consider the following statements: 1… They welcomed large scale investment in Railways and Plantation. 2… They promoted the idea of Swadeshi. 3….. They were critical of Indian capitalist class. 4…. They demanded abolition of salt tax. Which of the statement given above are correct??Ans- b
- Early nationalists were critical of large scale investment in Railways and plantation as it resulted into drain of wealth. These investments facilitate easy export of raw material and came at high interest rate.
- They saw solution to poverty in India in the development of domestic industries. So they promote the idea of Swadeshi.
- They supported Indian capitalist class but were critical of British capitalist class.
- They demanded abolition of salt tax since starting
#3 Consider the following statements regarding the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha in Maharashtra: 1. It was founded by Gopal Krishna Gokhale. 2. It organized a campaign for the peasants cause against land revenue settlement. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? ?Ans-b
- In 1873-74, the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha (Poona Public Society), led by Mahadev Govind Ranade, who organized a successful campaign among the peasants, as well as at Poona and Bombay against the land revenue settlement of 1867.
- The Servants of India Society was formed in Pune, Maharashtra, on June 12, 1905 by Gopal Krishna Gokhale, who left the Deccan Education Society to form this association.
- This agitation had generated a mentality of resistance among the peasants which contributed to the rise of peasant protest in 1875.
- The Sabha as well as many of the nationalist newspapers also supported the Deccan Agriculturists‘ Relief Bill.
- Under its impact, a large number of peasants refused to pay the enhanced revenue.
#4 Indian Capitalists preferred constitutional form of struggle as opposed to mass civil disobedience because- 1. prolonged mass struggle prevented the continuing of day-to-day business. 2. they depended on the foreign capitalists and British patronage. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? ?Ans-A
- The Indian capitalist class had its own notions of how the anti-imperialist struggle ought to be waged.
- It was always in favour of not completely abandoning the constitutional path and the negotiating table and generally preferred to put its weight behind constitutional forms of struggle as opposed to mass civil disobedience.
- This was due to several reasons
- First, there was the fear that mass civil disobedience, especially if it was prolonged, would unleash forces which could turn the movement revolutionary in a social sense (i.e., threaten capitalism itself).
- Second, the capitalists were unwilling to support a prolonged all-out hostility to the government of the day as it prevented the continuing of day-to-day business and threatened the very existence of the class.
- The Indian capitalists‘ support to constitutional participation, whether it be in assemblies, conferences or even joining the Viceroy‘s Executive Council, is not to be understood simply as their getting co-opted into the imperial system or surrendering to it.
- Further, however keen the capitalists may have been to keep constitutional avenues open, they clearly recognized the futility of entering councils.
- Finally, it must be noted that for the capitalist class constitutionalism was not an end in itself, neither did it subscribe to what has often been called ̳gradualism‘ in which case it would have joined hands with the Liberals and not supported the Congress which repeatedly went in for non constitutional struggle including mass civil disobedience.
- The Indian capitalist class grew from about the mid 19th century with largely an independent capital base and not as junior partners of foreign capital or as compradors.
- The capitalist class on the whole was not tied up in a subservient position with pro-imperialist feudal interests either economically or politically
#5 Consider the following statements regarding the Government of India Act, 1935: 1. It provided for the establishment of an All India Federation. 2. It provided for universal adult suffrage. 3. It provided for provincial autonomy. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? ?Ans-c
- The Government of India Act 1935 provided for the establishment of on All India Federation which was to be based on union of princely states.
- There was to be a bicameral federal legislature in which states were given disproportionate weightage.
- The representatives of the states were not to be elected by the people but appointed directly by the rulers.
- It also provided for a new system of government for the provinces on the basis of provincial autonomy.
- The franchise was restricted and only about 14 percent of the total population in British India was given the right to vote.
- There were restrictions on the basis of tax, property and educational qualifications.
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