Important tributaries of Ganga

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Right Bank Tributaries of The Ganga

  • Most of them except Yamuna originate in the peninsular region.

Yamuna River

  • Largest and the most important tributary.
  • It originates from the Yamnotri glacier on the Bandarpunch Peak in the Garhwal region in Uttarakhand at an elevation of about 6,000 meters.
  • It cuts across the Nag Tibba, the Mussoorie and the Shiwalik ranges.
  • It emerges out of the hilly area and enters plains near
  • Its main affluent in the upper reaches is the Tons which also rises from the Bandarpunch glacier.
  • It joins Yamuna below Kalsi before the latter leaves the hills.
  • At this site, the water carried by the Tons is twice the water carried by the Yamuna.

yamuna river tributaries-son-ken-betwa-banas

Non – Peninsular Tributaries

1.   Rishiganga

2.   Uma

3.   Hanuman Ganga and

4.   Tons join it in the mountains.

5.   Hindon joins at Ghaziabad in the plain area

Peninsular Tributaries

Most of the Peninsular rivers flow into the Yamuna between Agra and Allahabad.

1.   Chambal

2.   Sind

3.   Betwa

4.   Ken.

  • It unites with the Ganga near Triveni Sangam, Allahabad.
  • The total length of the Yamuna from its origin till Allahabad is 1,376 km.
  • It creates the highly fertile alluvial, Yamuna-Ganges Doab region between itself and the Ganges in the Indo-Gangetic plain.

Chambal River

  • The Chambal rises in the highlands of Janapao Hills (700 m) in the Vindhyan Range.
  • It flows through the Malwa Plateau.
  • It joins the Yamuna in Etawah district of Uttar Pradesh.
  • The river flows much below its banks due to severe erosion because of poor rainfall and numerous deep ravines have been formed in the Chambal Valley, giving rise to badland topography. {Arid Landforms}
  • The total length of the river is 1,050 km.

Dams on the Chambal

  • The Gandhi Sagar dam is the first of the four dams built on the Chambal River, located on the Rajasthan-Madhya Pradesh border.
  • The Rana Pratap Sagar dam is a dam located 52 km downstream of Gandhi Sagar dam on across the Chambal River in Chittorgarh district in Rajasthan.
  • The Jawahar Sagar Dam is the third dam in the series of Chambal Valley Projects, located 29 km upstream of Kota city and 26 km downstream of Rana Pratap Sagar dam.
  • The Kota Barrage is the fourth in the series of Chambal Valley Projects, located about 0.8 km upstream of Kota City in Rajasthan.
  • Water released after power generation at Gandhi Sagar dam, Rana Pratap Sagar dam and Jawahar Sagar Dams, is diverted by Kota Barrage for irrigation in Rajasthan and in Madhya Pradesh through canals.
Keoladeo National Park is supplied with water from Chambal river irrigation project.

Banas River

  • The Banas is a tributary of the Chambal.
  • It originates in the southern part of the Aravali Range.
  • It join the Chambal on Rajasthan – Madhya Pradesh border near Sawai Madhopur.

Sind River

  • The Sind originates in Vidisha Plateau of Madhya Pradesh.
  • It flows for a distance of 415 km before it joins the Yamuna.

Betwa River

  • The Betwa rises in Bhopal district (Vindhyan Range) and joins the Yamuna near
  • It has a total length of 590 km.
  • The Dhasan is its important tributary.

Ken River

  • The Ken river rising from the Barner Range of Madhya Pradesh joins the Yamuna near Chila.

Son River

  • The Son River rises in the Amarkantak Plateau.
  • Its source is close to the origin of the Narmada.
  • It passes along the Kaimur Range.
  • It joins the Ganga near Danapur in Patna district of Bihar.
  • It flows for a distance of 784 km from its source.
  • The important tributaries of the Son are the Johilla, the Gopat, the Rihand, the Kanhar and the North Koel. Almost all the tributaries join it on its right bank.

Damodar river

  • The Damodar river rises in the hills of the Chotanagpur plateau and flows through a rift valley.
  • Rich in mineral resources, the valley is home to large-scale mining and industrial activity.
  • It has a number of tributaries and subtributaries, such as Barakar, Konar, Bokaro, Haharo, etc.
  • The Barakar is the most important tributary of the Damodar.
  • Several dams have been constructed in the valley, for the generation of hydroelectric power. The valley is called “the Ruhr of India”.
  • The first dam was built across the Barakar River, a tributary of the Damodar river.
  • It used to cause devastating floods as a result of which it earned the name ‘Sorrow of Bengal’. Now the river is tamed by constructing numerous dams.
  • It joins the Hugli River 48 km below Kolkata.
  • The total length of the river is 541 km.

Left Bank Tributaries of The Ganga River

  • These rivers originate in the Himalayas.
  • The major tributaries apart from the Yamuna, are the Ramganga, the Gomati, the Ghaghra, the Gandak, the Burhi Gandak, the Bagmati, and the Kosi.

Ramganga River

  • The Ramganga river rises in the Garhwal district of Uttarakhand.
  • It enters the Ganga Plain near Kalagarh.
  • It joins the Ganga at
  • The Khoh, the Gangan, the Aril, the Kosi, and the Deoha (Gorra) are important tributaries of Ramganga.

Ghaghra River

  • Its source is near Gurla Mandhata peak, south of Manasarovar in Tibet (river of the trans-Himalayan origin).
  • It is known as the Karnaili in Western Nepal.
  • Its important tributaries are the Sarda, the Sarju (Ayodhya is located on its bank) and the Rapti.
  • The Ghaghara joins the Ganga a few kilometres downstream of Chhapra in Bihar.
  • After reaching the plain area, its stream gets divided into many branches of which, Koriyab and Garwa are important.
  • The river bed is sandy and sudden bends start occurring in the stream.
  • The river has a high flood frequency and has shifted its course several times.

Kali River

  • Rises in the high glaciers of trans-Himalaya.
  • It forms the boundary between Nepal and Kumaon.
  • It is known as the Sarda after it reaches the plains near Tanakpur.
  • It joins the

Gandak River

  • Originates near the Tibet-Nepal border at a height of 7,620 m
  • It receives a large number of tributaries in Nepal Himalaya.
  • Its important tributaries are the Kali Gandak, the Mayangadi, the Bari and the Trishuli.
  • It debouches into the plains at
  • It flows into Ganga at Hajipur in Bihar.

Burhi Gandak

  • Originates from the western slopes of Sumesar hills near the India-Nepal border.
  • It joins the Ganga near Monghyr town.

Kosi River

  • The Kosi river consists of seven streams namely Sut Kosi, Tamba Kosi, Talkha, Doodh Kosi, Botia Kosi, Arun and Tamber and is popularly known as
  • These streams flow through eastern Nepal which is known as the Sapt Kaushik region.
  • The sources of seven streams of the Kosi are located in snow covered areas which also receive heavy rainfall.
  • Consequently, huge volume of water flows with tremendous speed.
  • Seven streams mingle with each other to form three streams named the Tumar, Arun and Sun Kosi.
  • They unite at Triveni north of the Mahabharata Range to form the Kosi.
  • The river enters the Tarai of Nepal after cutting a narrow gorge in the Mahabharata Range.
  • The joins the Ganga near
  • Soon after debouching onto the plain the river becomes sluggish.
  • Large scale deposition of eroded material takes place in the plain region.
  • The river channel is braided and it shifts its course frequently. This has resulted in frequent devastating floods and has converted large tracts of cultivable land into waste land in Bihar. Thus the river is often termed as the ‘Sorrow of Bihar’.
  • In order to tame this river, a barrage was constructed in 1965 near Hanuman Nagar in Nepal.
  • Embankments for flood control have been constructed as a joint venture of India and Nepal.
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