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Levels of Organizations in Ecology

There are six organizations –

Individual or Organism

􏰀  The basic living system, a functional grouping of the lower-level components, including at least one cell

􏰀  Example – plant, animal, bacteria, fungi etc.

􏰀  As you have seen in the above diagrams individual’s body is made up of organs, organelles which help in carrying out various processes of life.

Population

􏰀  A population is a group of organisms of same species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.

􏰀  The individuals in a population competes or share for similar resources and interbreed.

􏰀  Example – teakwood trees in forest, bacteria in a culture plate, lotus plants in a pond.

Community

􏰀  An organism cannot survive without interacting with other organisms and so, we never see a plant or animal seldom occur by themselves.

􏰀  Example – Animals need plants as their food and plants need animals in pollination, seed dispersal, and soil microorganism for micronutrient supply and thus the two needs each other.

􏰀  Mostly communities are named after the dominant species. Example – grassland community is dominated by grasses, though it may contain herbs, shrubs and trees.

􏰀  Communities are not fixed or rigid. They can be small or large. Like human community is so large while tiger community is too small.

Types of community

On the size of community, we can classify the community as follows –

  1. Major community
  2. Minor community

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Ecosystem

An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. 

Structrual + Functional unit of Biosphere

Biome

  • a large community unit, characterized by a major vegetation type and associated fauna, found in a specific climatic region
  • No 2 biomes are alike.

Biosphere

  • Represents a highly integrated & interacting zone comprising of atmosphere, hydrosphere & lithosphere
  • abundant life between 200 meters below oceans surfaces till approx. 6000 meters above sea surfaces
  • absent at extremes of north & south poles, the highest mountains & at the deepest oceans majorly due to hostile conditions
  • Occasionally spores of fungi & bacteria do occur at great height beyond 8000 meters but they are not metabolically active & hence represent only dormant life.

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