Littoral and Swamp Forests

They can survive and grow both in fresh as well as brackish water.

Brackish Water: The mixture of seawater and fresh water in estuaries is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt).

  • Occur in and around the deltas, estuaries and creeks prone to tidal influences (delta or tidal forests).
  • Littoral (relating to or on the shore of the sea or a lake) forests occur at several places along the coast.
  • Swamp forests are confined to the deltas of the Ganga, the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Cauvery.
  • Dense mangroves occur all along the coastline in sheltered estuaries, tidal creeks, backwaters, salt marshes and mudflats. It provides useful fuel wood.
    The most pronounced and the densest is the Sunderban in the Ganga delta where the predominant species is Sundri (Heriteera).




  • It provides hard and durable timber which is used for construction, building purposes and making boats.
  • The important species found in these forests are Sundri, agar, rhizophora, screw pines, canes and palms, etc.

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