There are several winds which develop in response of the local terrain. They are known as the local winds. They have a significant impact in the weather conditions of a place and psychology of the society. Some of the prominent local winds are:
Land and Sea breeze:
- these winds develop as a consequence of the differential heating of the land and sea surfaces.
- During the day, the land heats up faster and become warmer than the water off shore.
- Because of this a low pressure area is created over the land surface and relatively high pressure area on sea surface.
- This causes wind to blow from sea towards the land. This is called sea breeze.
- On contrary during night, the land loses its heat relatively faster than the sea, hence a breeze starts flowing from land towards the sea surface. This is called land breeze.
- These winds are periodic winds and regulate the temperature in coastal areas. The sea breeze has a soothing effect on the weather and increases the efficiency of the people.
- These winds are more pronounced in tropical and sub-tropical latitudes as differential heating is more here.
(for detail refer other article)
Mountain and Valley breeze:
- The mountain and valley breeze also has direction reversal in every 12 hours like land and sea breeze.
- Mountain air cools rapidly at night and valley air heats up rapidly during day.
- Thus warm air raises upslope during the day and at night; the cooler air subsides down slope into the valley.
Katabatic winds (gravity drainage winds):
- They are significant on a large scale than mountain and valley winds under certain conditions.
- These winds are usually stronger than mountain or valley winds.
- For these winds to blow, an elevated plateau or highland is essential, where layers at the surface cool, become denser and flow down slope.
- The ferocious winds that can blow off the ice sheets of Antarctica and Greenland are Katabatic in nature.
Some of the local winds, their region of occurrence and characteristics- refer other article
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