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Major Tributaries of Indus River

Major Tributaries of Indus River

Jhelum River

  • The Jhelum has its source in a spring at Verinag in the south-eastern part of the Kashmir Valley.
  • It flows northwards into Wular Lake (north-western part of Kashmir Valley). From Wular Lake, it changes its course southwards. At Baramulla the river enters a gorge in the hills.
  • The river forms steep-sided narrow gorge through Pir Panjal Range below Baramula.
  • At Muzaffarabad, the river takes a sharp hairpin bend southward.
  • Thereafter, it forms the India-Pakistan boundary for 170 km and emerges at the Potwar Plateau near Mirpur.
  • After flowing through the spurs of the Salt Range it debouches (emerge from a confined space into a wide, open area) on the plains near the city of Jhelum.
  • It joins the Chenab at Trimmu.
  • The river is navigable for about 160 km out of a total length of 724 km.

Chenab River

  • The Chenab originates from near the Bara Lacha Pass in the Lahul-Spiti part of the Zaskar Range.
  • Two small streams on opposite sides of the pass, namely Chandra and Bhaga, form its headwaters at an altitude of 4,900 m.
  • The united stream Chandrabhaga flows in the north-west direction through the Pangi valley, parallel to the Pir Panjal range.
  • Near Kistwar, it cuts a deep gorge.
  • It enters the plain area near Akhnur in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • From here it through the plains of Pakistani Punjab to reach Panchnad where it joins the Satluj after receiving the waters of Jhelum and Ravi rivers.

Ravi River

  • The Ravi has its source in Kullu hills near the Rohtang Pass in Himachal Pradesh.
  • It drains the area between the Pir Panjal and the Dhaola Dhar ranges.
  • After crossing Chamba, it takes a south-westerly turn and cuts a deep gorge in the Dhaola Dhar range.
  • It enters Punjab Plains near Madhopur and later enters Pakistan below Amritsar.
  • It debouches into the Chenab a little above Rangpur in Pakistani Punjab.

Beas River

  • The Beas originates near the Rohtang Pass, at a height of 4,062 m above sea level, on the southern end of the Pir Panjal Range, close to the source of the Ravi.
  • It crosses the Dhaola Dhar range and it takes a south-westerly direction and meets the Satluj river at Harike in Punjab.
  • It is a comparatively small river which is only 460 km long but lies entirely within the Indian territory.

Satluj River

  • The Satluj rises from the Manasarovar-Rakas Lakes in western Tibet at a height of 4,570 m within 80 km of the source of the Indus.
  • Like the Indus, it takes a north-westerly course upto the Shipki La on the Tibet-Himachal Pradesh boundary.
  • It cuts deep gorges where it pierces the Great Himalaya and the other Himalayan ranges.
  • Before entering the Punjab plain, it cuts a gorge in Naina Devi Dhar, where the famous Bhakra dam has been constructed.
  • After entering the plain at Rupnagar (Ropar), it turns westwards and is joined by the Beas at Harike.
  • From near Ferozepur to Fazilka it forms the boundary between India and Pakistan for nearly 120 km.
  • During its onward journey it receives the collective drainage of the Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum rivers. It joins the Indus a few kilometres above Mithankot.
  • Out of its total length of 1,450 km, it flows for 1,050 km in Indian territory.

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