Second HRM model i.e. matching model was developed by Fombrun, Tichy, and Devanna’ in Michigan school.
- Matching model ensures way to achieve the organizational objectives is the applying of above five major functions of HRM very effectively.
- The work and contribution of properly selected human resource has to be evaluated in using appropriate techniques.
- Some kinds of rewards have to be offered on the basis of results of appraisal and the performances of employees.
- According to matching model this process is totally dependent on the HRD procedures and programmes of the organization.
- It is believed that the whole of HRM is a cyclical process which every function is interdependent hence value of each function is very identical for acceding the organizational objectives.
- In matching model, it tries to encapsulate all key functions of HRM and to utilize in a more comprehensive manner.
- Therefore, the underlined ideology of this model could be termed as descriptive theory of HRM.
- Some authors have classified models and theories of HRM into three kinds.
- According to Guest HRM theory has three categories like strategic theory, descriptive theory and normative theory.
- Hendry and Pettigrew indicate that strategic theory which identifies key environmental influences on HRM or classifies HR strategy in relation to models of corporate strategy such as those produced by Miles and Snow’ and Porter.’
- Strategic theory focuses the influence of both internal and external environmental forces are so excessive for HRM and therefore proponents of this theory believed using certain strategic approach to face challenges of these environmental forces.
- Putting it tersely in philosophical terminology, the model must score some flexibility in order to survive and to generate the output.
- A model belongs to strategic theory must have two important viewpoints viz. assimilation and accommodation.
- Assimilation means the organization acquires experiences from both internal and external environments and in the process it should formulate potential strategies.
- Conversely, in accommodation, the organization should apply those strategies and its environment undergoes change as per the demands of the model.
- Mostly views and ideas of contingency theory have some conformity with the strategic theory.
- As indicated by Beer et al descriptive theory describes HRM more inclusively by classifying the whole content of HRM functions.
- In this theory, whole HRM process is considered as a one element and the proponents assume that every aspect such as aims, objectives, vision, missions, policies and procedures, stakeholders etc belong to organization as ingredients for achieving the desired objectives.
- The matching model developed by the Michigan school, is a real example for the descriptive theory.
- Normative theory is more prescriptive in its approach.
- Walton has developed ideas related to this theory advocating a mutual commitment approach, and the best – practice list of Pfeffer.
- Normative theory tends to apply certain principles which are deterministic and related with long-term perspectives.
- Walton describes a model which composed of policies which promote mutuality, i.e. mutual goals, mutual influence, mutual respect, mutual reward, and mutual responsibility.
- This theory expects that policies of mutuality would enhance the quality and behaviour of human resource and it would lead for high commitment.
- A model belongs to normative theory is composed with certain carefully designed behavioural, attitudinal and moral principles.
- Ethical approach which is discussed below is another model which belongs to normative theory of HRM.
In theorizing HRM models, Delery and Doty distinguish three kinds of HRM theories as follows
(1) the universalistic,
(3) the configurational.
Delery and Doty’s review is a one kind of classification of whole literature of models and theories in HRM.
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