Place of effective management” to mean a place where key management and commercial decisions that are necessary for the conduct of the business of an entity as a whole are, in substance made [Explanation to section 6(3)]
Circular No. 6/2017, dated 24.01.2017 & Circular No. 8/2017, dated 23-02-2017]
Guiding principles for determination of Place of Effective Management (POEM) of a company, other than an Indian company
‘Place of effective management’ (POEM) is an internationally recognised test for determination of residence of a company incorporated in a foreign jurisdiction. Most of the tax treaties entered into by India recognises the concept of ‘place of effective management’ for determination of residence of a company as a tie-breaker rule for avoidance of double taxation.
Concept of Substance over form
Any determination of the POEM will depend upon the facts and circumstances of a given case. The POEM concept is one of substance over form. It may be noted that an entity may have more than one place of management, but it can have only one place of effective management at any point of time. Since “residence” is to be determined for each year, POEM will also be required to be determined on year to year basis.
Whether the company is engaged in active business outside India? – An important criterion for determination of POEM
The process of determination of POEM would be primarily based on the fact as to whether or not the company is engaged in active business outside India.
A company shall be said to be engaged in “active business outside India”
- – if the passive income is not more than 50% of its total income; and
- – less than 50% of its total assets are situated in India; and
- – less than 50% of total number of employees are situated in India or are resident in India; and
– the payroll expenses incurred on such employees is less than 50% of its total payroll expenditure.
Place of Effective Management:
(i) In case of companies engaged in active business outside India
POEM of a company engaged in active business shall be presumed to be outside India if the majority of the board meetings are held outside India.
However, in case the Board is not exercising its powers of management and such powers are being exercised by either the holding company or any other person, resident in India, then POEM shall be considered to be in India.
For this purpose, merely because the Board of Directors (BOD) follows general and objective principles of global policy of the group laid down by the parent entity which may be in the field of Pay roll functions, Accounting, Human resource (HR) functions, IT infrastructure and network platforms, Supply chain functions, Routine banking operational procedures, and not being specific to any entity or group of entities per se; would not constitute a case of BoD of companies standing aside.
For the purpose of determining whether the company is engaged in active business outside India, the average of the data of the previous year and two years prior to that shall be taken into account. In case the company has been in existence for a shorter period, then, data of such period shall be considered. Where the accounting year for tax purposes, in accordance with laws of country of incorporation of the company, is different from the previous year, then, data of the accounting year that ends during the relevant previous year and two accounting years preceding it shall be considered.
(ii) In case of companies not engaged in active business outside India
The guidelines provide a two-stage process for determination of POEM in case of companies not engaged in active business.
(a) First stage: Identifying the person(s) who actually make the key management and
commercial decisions for the conduct of the company as a whole.
(b) Second stage: Determining the place where these decisions are, in fact, being made.
The place where these management decisions are taken would be more important than the place where such decisions are implemented. For the purpose of determination of POEM, it is the substance which would be conclusive rather than the form.
Guiding PRINCIPLES which may be taken into account for determining the POEM are as follows:
(a) The location where a company’s Board regularly meets and makes decisions may be the company’s place of effective management provided, the Board-
(i) retains and exercises its authority to govern the company; and
(ii) does, in substance, make the key management and commercial decisions necessary for the conduct of the company’s business as a whole.
- It may be mentioned that mere formal holding of board meetings at a place would by itself not be conclusive for determination of POEM being located at that place.
- If the key decisions by the directors are in fact being taken in a place other than the place where the formal meetings are held then such other place would be relevant for POEM.
- As an example, there may be a case where the board meetings are held in a location distinct from the place where head office of the company is located or such location is unconnected with the place where the predominant activity of the company is being carried out.
- If a board has de facto delegated the authority to make the key management and commercial decisions for the company to the senior management or any other person including a shareholder, promoter, strategic or legal or financial advisor etc. and does nothing more than routinely ratifying the decisions that have been made, the company’s place of effective management will ordinarily be the place where these senior managers or the other person make those decisions.
(b) Location of executive committee, in case powers are delegated by the board: A company’s board may delegate some or all of its authority to one or more committees such as an executive committee consisting of key members of senior management. In these situations, the location where the members of the Executive Committee are based and where that committee develops and formulates the key strategies and policies for mere formal approval by the full board will often be considered to be the company’s place of effective management.
The delegation of authority may be either de jure (by means of a formal resolution or Shareholder Agreement) or de facto (based upon the actual conduct of the board and the executive committee).
(c) Location of head office: The location of a company’s head office will be a very important factor in the determination of the company’s place of effective management because it often represents the place where key company decisions are made. The following points need to be considered for determining the location of the head office of the company:-
If the company’s senior management and their support staff are based in a single location and that location is held out to the public as the company’s principal place of business or headquarters, then, that location is the place where head office is located.
If the company is more decentralized (for example, where various members of senior management may operate, from time to time, at offices located in the various countries) then, the company’s head office would be the location where these senior managers,-
(i) are primarily or predominantly based; or
(ii) normally return to following travel to other locations; or
(iii) meet when formulating or deciding key strategies and policies for the company as a whole.
Members of the senior management may operate from different locations on a more or less permanent basis and the members may participate in various meetings via telephone or video conferencing rather than by being physically present at meetings in a particular location. In such situation the head office would normally be the location, if any, where the highest level of management (for example, the Managing Director and Financial Director) and their direct support staff are located.
In situations where the senior management is so decentralised that it is not possible to determine the company’s head office with a reasonable degree of certainty, the location of a company’s head office would not be of much relevance in determining that company’s place of effective management.
(d) Use of modern technology: The use of modern technology impacts the place of effective management in many ways. It is no longer necessary for the persons taking decision to be physically present at a particular location. Therefore physical location of board meeting or executive committee meeting or meeting of senior management may not be where the key decisions are in substance being made. In such cases the place where the directors or the persons taking the decisions or majority of them usually reside may also be a relevant factor.
(e) Decision via circular resolution or round robin voting: In case of circular resolution or round robin voting the factors like, the frequency with which it is used, the type of decisions made in that manner and where the parties involved in those decisions are located etc. are to be considered. It cannot be said that proposer of decision alone would be relevant but based on past practices and general conduct; it would be required to determine the person who has the authority and who exercises the authority to take decisions. The place of location of such person would be more important.
(f) Decisions made by Shareholders are not relevant factor in determination of POEM: The decisions made by shareholder on matters which are reserved for shareholder decision under the company laws are not relevant for determination of a company’s place of effective management. Such decisions may include sale of all or substantially all of the company’s assets, the dissolution, liquidation or deregistration of the company, the modification of the rights attaching to various classes of shares or the issue of a new class of shares etc. These decisions typically affect the existence of the company itself or the rights of the shareholders as such, rather than the conduct of the company’s business from a management or commercial perspective and are therefore, generally not relevant for the determination of a company’s place of effective management.
However, the shareholder’s involvement can, in certain situations, turn into that of effective management. This may happen through a formal arrangement by way of shareholder agreement etc. or may also happen by way of actual conduct. As an example if the shareholders limit the authority of board and senior managers of a company and thereby remove the company’s real authority to make decision then the shareholder guidance transforms into usurpation and such undue influence may result in effective management being exercised by the shareholder.
Therefore, whether the shareholder involvement is crossing the line into that of effective management is one of fact and has to be determined on case-to-case basis only.
(g) Day to day routine operational decisions are not relevant for determination of POEM: It may be clarified that day to day routine operational decisions undertaken by junior and middle management shall not be relevant for the purpose of determination of POEM. The operational decisions relate to the oversight of the day-to-day business operations and activities of a company whereas the key management and commercial decision are concerned with broader strategic and policy decision.
For example, a decision to open a major new manufacturing facility or to discontinue a major product line would be examples of key commercial decisions affecting the company’s business as a whole. By contrast, decisions by the plant manager appointed by senior management to run that facility, concerning repairs and maintenance, the implementation of company-wide quality controls and human resources policies, would be examples of routine operational decisions. In certain situations it may happen that person responsible for operational decision is the same person who is responsible for the key management and commercial decision. In such cases it will be necessary to distinguish the two type of decisions and thereafter assess the location where the key management and commercial decisions are taken.
If the above factors do not lead to clear identification of POEM then the final guidelines provide that following secondary factors may be considered:
- Place where main and substantial activity of the company is carried out; or
- Place where the accounting records of the company are kept.
It needs to be emphasized that the determination of POEM is to be based on all relevant facts related to the management and control of the company, and is not to be determined on the basis of isolated facts that by itself do not establish effective management, as illustrated by the following examples:
(i) The fact that a foreign company is completely owned by an Indian company will not be conclusive evidence that the conditions for establishing POEM in India have been satisfied.
(ii) The fact that there exists a Permanent Establishment of a foreign entity in India would itself not be conclusive evidence that the conditions for establishing POEM in India have been satisfied.
(iii) The fact that one or some of the Directors of a foreign company reside in India will not be conclusive evidence that the conditions for establishing POEM in India have been satisfied.
(iv) The fact of, local management being situated in India in respect of activities carried out by a foreign company in India will not, by itself, be conclusive evidence that the conditions for establishing POEM have been satisfied.
(v) The existence in India of support functions that are preparatory and auxiliary in character will not be conclusive evidence that the conditions for establishing POEM in India have been satisfied.
- It is reiterated that the above principles for determining the POEM are for guidance only.
- No single principle will be decisive in itself.
- The above principles are not to be seen with reference to any particular moment in time rather activities performed over a period of time, during the previous year, need to be considered.
- Based on the facts and circumstances if it is determined that during the previous year the POEM is in India and also outside India then POEM shall be presumed to be in India if it has been mainly /predominantly in India.
- The CBDT also clarified that the Assessing Officer (AO) shall, before initiating any proceedings for holding a company incorporated outside India, on the basis of its POEM, as being resident in India, seek prior approval of the Principal Commissioner or the Commissioner, as the case may be.
- Further, in case the AO proposes to hold a company incorporated outside India, on the basis of its POEM, as being resident in India then any such finding shall be given by the AO after seeking prior approval of the collegium of three members consisting of the Principal Commissioners or the Commissioners, as the case may be, to be constituted by the Principal Chief Commissioner of the region concerned, in this regard. The collegium so constituted shall provide an opportunity of being heard to the company before issuing any directions in the matter.
CBDT vide Circular no. 8/2017 dated 23.02.2017
Clarified that POEM guidelines shall not apply to a company having turnover or gross receipts of ` 50 crores or less in a financial year.
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