QUESTION- Prelims-IAS – HISTORY MCQ-02
- He never openly declared his independence from the Mughal empire but in practice he acted like an independent ruler
- He followed a tolerant policy towards the Hindus,for example, a Hindu, Puran Chand was his Dewan.
- He Established an orderly administration in the Deccan on the basis of the Jagirdari system of the Mughals.
- From middle of 18th century a number of famine devastated India, such as 1759 (Sindh), 1853-55 (Bombay, Madras and Rajputana), 1907-08 (United provinces and Central Province) etc.
- These famines occurred due to variety of causes. In the 18th and early 19th centuries an important factor was the devastation caused by frequent warfare between the British and various regional powers.
- In the part of the country ruled by the British there was a tendency in the early days of British administration to push up land revenue demand to high level.
- Moreover, the British collected the revenue with greater rigour than was customary in pre-British days.
- They also refused to reduce revenue as a concession to farmers in a bad season.
- This inflexibility of revenue policy was certainly a major cause of the Bengal Famine of 1770, apart from failure of seasonal rains.
- English traders and their agents’ activities also contributed to the intensity of famine in certain cases e.g. speculation in grain trade by the Company’s servants in 1770 in Bengal.
- In the early 19th century, the forced cultivation of commercial crops for export in place of food grains also was a factor.
- Maratha did not emphasised on Science and technology for the development modern weaponry.
- Maratha did not emphasised on the development of trade and industry.
- They were interested in raising revenue from the helpless peasantry and failed to give sound administration to the people.
- They were more focussed towards waging wars and bringing more and more territories under their control. They were not concerned about consolidating their gains. It seems they lacked outlook and program necessary for founding an all India empire.
- They had sufficient resources.
- They lacked wisdom to use resources in proper direction.
- Chauth and Sardeshmukhi were the taxes imposed by Marathas. It was popularized by Shivaji who called himself the Sardeshmukh.
- After the Battle of Buxar, in 1764, the Company, which till now had purely trading functions, obtained the ‘diwani’ (i.e., rights over revenue and civil justice) of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa.
- From 1765-72, there was dual government under which Indian officials were allowed to function as before but under the overall control of the British Governor and British Officials.
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