QUESTION- Prelims-IAS – HISTORY MCQ-04
- After the decline of the Mughals, British had to conquer other Indian provinces like Mysore, Maratha, Sikhs before getting a hold over their administration.
- Saranjami System under Marathas was similar to the Jagir system of Mughals where lands were granted (non-hereditary) for maintenance of troops.
- The land was mostly in the form of a rural Watan (rights given in reward for previous service or merit) or Jagir, its owner being entitled to extract revenue from the villages included in the territory.
- Saranjamdar was the title given to the landlord or holder of a Saranjam.
- Usually it was bestowed on that person for heroic deeds in the military field, thus, most Saranjamdars were former military officers.
- Ranjit Singh built up a powerful, disciplined, and -well-equipped army along the European lines with the help of European instructors.
- He set up modern foundries to manufacture cannon at Lahore.
- It is said that he possessed the second best army in Asia, the first being the army of the English East India Company.
- He did not make any changes in the system of land revenue earlier promulgated by the Mughals. The amount of land revenue was calculated on the basis of 50 per cent of the gross produce.
- He was tolerant and liberal in religious matters. Many of his important ministers and commanders were Muslims and Hindus.
- The most prominent and trusted of his ministers was Fakir Azizuddin, while his Finance Minister was Dewan Dina Nath.
- The absence of law of primogeniture among the Mughals usually meant a war of succession among the sons of dying emperor in which the military leaders took sides.
- The princes of the royal dynasty receded to the background while the struggle was fought by leaders of rival factions using royal princes as nominal leaders.
- There were inherent defects in the Mughal military system. The army was organised on feudal basis where the common soldier owed allegiance to the mansabdar rather than the Emperor.
- The soldier looked upon the mansabdar as his chief. The leaders of such armies changed sides constantly plotting to betray the Mughal kings.
- Recurrent peasant revolts in the late seventeenth and the early eighteenth centuries are believed to have been a major cause of decline of the Mughal empire.
- An empire imposed from above and its gradually increasing economic pressures were never fully accepted by the rural society and the regional sentiments against a centralised power had also been there.
- As the weaknesses of the central power became apparent and the Mughal army faced successive debacles, and at the same time the oppression of the Mughal ruling class increased, resistance to imperial authority also became widespread and more resolute.
- In most cases, these rebellions were led by the disaffected local zamindars and backed fully by the oppressed peasantry.
- Eventually the combined pressure of the zamindars and peasants often proved to be too much for the Mughal authority to withstand.
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