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Prelims-IAS –POLITY MCQ Ans-42

1..Which among the following constitutional amendments added a new Directive Principle/Principles?

1. 42nd
2. 44th
3. 97th
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1 and 3 only

(d) 1 and 2 only

  • The 42nd Amendment Act of 1976 added four new Directive Principles to the original list. They require the State:
  To secure opportunities for healthy development of children (Article 39).
  To promote equal justice and to provide free legal aid to the poor (Article 39 A).
  To take steps to secure the participation of workers in the management of industries (Article 43 A).
  To protect and improve the environment and to safeguard forests and wild life (Article 48 A).
  • The 44th Amendment Act of 1978 added one Directive Principle, which requires the State to minimise inequalities in income, status, facilities and opportunities (Article 38).
  • The 86th Amendment Act of 2002 changed the subject-matter of Article 45 and made elementary education a fundamental right under Article 21 A. The amended directive requires the State to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years.
  • The 97th Amendment Act of 2011 added a new Directive Principle relating to co-operative societies. It requires the state to promote voluntary formation, autonomous functioning, democratic control and professional management of co-operative societies (Article 43B).
  • ANS-A

2..In India, the concept of Secularism connotes:

1. Religion and state must be strictly separated.
2. Freedom of religion of both individuals and communities.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
  • Western conception of secularism means mutual exclusion of state and religion in order to protect values such as individual freedom and citizenship rights of individuals.
  • It means that religion and state must be strictly separated.
  • Indian concept of secularism includes:

  The Indian Constitution grants rights to all religious communities such as the right to establish and maintain their educational institutions. Freedom of religion in India means the freedom of religion of both individuals and communities. 

  India had religiously sanctioned customs such as untouchability which deprived individuals of the most basic dignity and self-respect.

  • Such customs were so deeply rooted and pervasive that without active state intervention, there was no hope of their dissolution.
  • The state simply had to interfere in the affairs of religion. Such intervention was not always negative.
  • The state could help religious communities by giving aid to educational institutions run by them.
  • Thus, the state may help or hinder religious communities depending on which mode of action promotes values such as freedom and equality.
  • ANS-B

3..With reference to Constituent Assembly of India, consider the following statements:

It was formed under the scheme formulated by the Cabinet Mission Plan.It was a body elected directly by the people on the basis of universal adult franchise.Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
  •  

    The Constituent Assembly was constituted in November 1946 under the scheme formulated by the Cabinet Mission Plan.

  • Some of the features of the scheme were:
    • The total strength of the Constituent Assembly was to be 389. Of these, 296 seats were to be allotted to British India and 93 seats to the Princely States.
    • Each province and princely state (or group of states in case of small states) were to be allotted seats in proportion to their respective population.
    • Seats allocated to each British province were to be decided among the three principal communities- Muslims, Sikhs and general (all except Muslims and Sikhs), in proportion to their population.
    • The representatives of each community were to be elected by members of that community in the provincial legislative assembly and voting was to be by the method of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote.
    • The representatives of princely states were to be nominated by the heads of the princely states.
    • The Constituent Assembly was a partly elected and partly nominated body.
    • Moreover, the members were indirectly elected by the members of the provincial assemblies, who themselves were elected on a limited franchise.
    • ANS-A

4..Which of the following are unitary or non- federal features in the Indian Constitution?

  1.  Single Constitution 
  2. Independent Judiciary 
  3. Single Citizenship
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a)  1 only
(b)  1 and 3 only
(c)  2 and 3 only
(d)  1, 2 and 3
  • The Constitution of India establishes a federal system of government. It contains all the usual features of a federation, viz., two government, division of powers, written Constitution, super-macy of Constitution, rigidity of Constitution, independent judiciary and bicameralism. (7points to remember)
  • However, the Indian Constitution also contains a large number of unitary or non-federal features, viz., a strong Centre, single Constitution, single citizenship, flexibility of Constitution, integrated judiciary, appointment of state governor by the Centre, all-India services, emergency provisions, and so on. 
  • ANS-B

5..Which of the following are the Socialist principles that are reflected in the Directive Principles of State Policy?

To promote equal justice and to provide free legal aid to the poor.To organise village panchayats and enable them to function as units of self-government.To make provision for just and human econditions for work and maternity relief.Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a)  1 and 2 only
(b)  2 and 3 only
(c)  1 and 3 only
(d)  1, 2 and 3
The following principles reflect the ideology of socialism as they lay down the framework of a democratic socialist state, aim at providing social and economic justice, and set the path towards welfare state. They direct the state:
  • To promote the welfare of the people by securing a social order permeated by justice— social, economic and political—and to minimise inequalities in income, status, facilities and opportunities (Article 38).
  • To secure
(a) the right to adequate means of livelihood for all citizens;
(b) the equitable distribution of material resources of the community for the common good;
(c) prevention of concentration of wealth and means of production;
(d) equal pay for equal work for men and women;
(e) preservation of the health and strength of workers and children against forcible abuse; and
(f) opportunities for healthy development of children (Article 39).
    • To secure the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement (Article 41).
    • To make provision for just and humane conditions for work and maternity relief (Article 42).
    • To secure a living wage, a decent standard of life and social and cultural opportunities for all workers(Article 43).
    • To take steps to secure the participation of workers in the management of industries (Article 43 A).
    • To raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of people and to improve public health (Article47).To promote equal justice and to provide free legal aid to the poor (Article 39 A).
    • To organise village panchayats and enable them to function as units of self-government is a Gandhian principle. (Article 40)
    • ANS-C

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