Moderately warm summers and fairly mild winters.
- The mean annual temperatures are usually between 5° C and 15° C.
- Winters are abnormally mild. This is because of the warming effect brought by warm North Atlantic Drift. [Eastern Australian warm current in case of New Zealand]
- Rainfall occurs throughout the year with winter maxima.
- Adequate rainfall throughout the year.
- As in other temperate regions there are four distinct seasons.
- Winter is the season of cloudy skies, foggy and misty mornings, and many rainy days from the passing depressions. (Trees shed their leaved in winter to prevent snow accumulation and protect themselves from severe cold)
- Spring is the driest and the most refreshing season when people emerge from the depressing winter to see everything becoming green again.
- This is followed by the long, sunny summer.
- Next is the autumn with the roar of gusty winds; and the cycle repeats itself.
- This type of climate with its four distinct seasons is something that is conspicuously absent in the tropics. [Rainforest = Only Rainy season, Tropical Monsoon = Summer, Winter and Rainy, Tropical Savanna = Summer (rains) and Winter]
- Soils of temperate forests are podozolic and fairly deep.
- The natural vegetation of this climatic type is deciduous forest.
- The trees shed their leaves in the cold season.
- This is an adaptation for protecting themselves against the winter snow and frost.
- Shedding begins in autumn, the ‘fall’ season. Growth begins in spring.
- Some of the common species include oak, elm, ash, birch, beech, and poplar.
- In the wetter areas grow willows (Light weight cricket bats are made from willows. In India willows are found in Kashmir).
- Most animals are the familiar vertebrates and invertebrates.
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