Tropical Dry Evergreen Forests


  • Along the coasts of Tamil Nadu. Climatic Conditions
  • Annual rainfall of 100 cm [mostly from the north-east monsoon winds in October – December].
  • Mean annual temperature is about 28°C.
  • The mean humidity is about 75 per cent.
  • The growth of evergreen forests in areas of such low rainfall is a bit strange.



  • Short statured trees, up to 12 m high, with complete canopy.
  • Bamboos and grasses not conspicuous.
  • The important species are jamun, tamarind, neem, etc.
  • Most of the land under these forests has been cleared for agriculture or casuarina plantations.


Casuarina plantation

  • It resembles feathery conifer in general appearance.
  • They are rapid-growing, carefree species for sites and climates as varied as coastal sand dunes, high mountain slopes, hot humid tropics, and semi-arid regions.
  • They have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. It grows 15 to 25 metres in height on an average.



Casuarina is the most popular farm forestry in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Odisha, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Karnataka.



  • Reduces damage in the event of natural calamities.
  • Line planting in the coastal areas helps in controlling the wind force.
  • It is also used for tourism promotion in view of its ornamental appearance.
  • It provides top quality firewood.
  • The wood is suitable for paper pulp and useful raw material for the manufacture of paper for writing, printing, and wrapping.
  • It is got some serious medicinal values as well.



Wasteland development

The characteristics which make it a suitable species for wasteland development include adaptability to wide range of habitats, fast growth, salt tolerant, drought resistant, ability to reclaim land and stabilize sand dunes.
Intercrops such as groundnut, cucumber, watermelons, sesamum, and pulses can also be raised along with the plantation.

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