Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests

Climatic Conditions

  • Annual rainfall 100 to 200 cm.
  • Mean annual temperature of about 27°C
  • The average annual relative humidity of 60 to 75 per cent.
  • Spring (between winter and summer) and summer are dry.


  • The trees drop their leaves during the spring and early summer when sufficient moisture is not available.
  • The general appearance is bare in extreme summers (April-May).
  • Tropical moist deciduous forests present irregular top storey [25 to 60 m].
  • Heavily buttressed trees and fairly complete undergrowth.
  • These forests occupy a much larger area than the evergreen forests but large tracts under these forests have been cleared for cultivation.


  • Belt running along the Western Ghats surrounding the belt of evergreen forests.
  • A strip along the Shiwalik range including terai and bhabar from 77° E to 88° E.
  • Manipur and Mizoram.
  • Hills of eastern Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh.
  • Chota Nagpur Plateau.
  • Most of Odisha.
  • Parts of West Bengal and
  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands.


  • These provide valuable timer like Teak.
  • The main species found in these forests are teak, sal, laurel, rosewood, amla, jamun, bamboo, etc.
  • It is comparatively easy to exploit these forests due to their high degree of gregariousness (more pure stands).

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